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Threshold Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Drug Names(s): 2DG
Description: 2-Deoxyglucose (2DG) is an orally administered small molecule that employs Metabolic Targeting to treat solid tumors by directly inhibiting glycolysis. Because tumor cells in general, and those in hypoxic zones in particular, are dependent on glycolysis for survival, tumor cells are particularly sensitive to the effect of 2DG. This compound is a synthetic glucose analog that distributes selectively to tumor tissue because of metabolic changes related to increased glucose consumption. Because tumor cells exhibit increased levels of glucose transport proteins, these cells actively transport 2DG into the cells. Once inside the cell, 2DG interferes with cellular mechanisms for generating energy by competing with glucose for key enzymes in glycolysis.
The in vivo efficacy of 2DG has been studied in mouse and rat models of sarcomas, adenocarcinomas, leukemias, melanomas and bladder, colon and breast tumors. In particular, treatment with 2DG, alone and in combination with other chemotherapy, resulted in increased lifespan or a reduction in tumor growth in many of these models.
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